During the 2016 US presidential election, Donald Trump`s campaign included a promise to renegotiate or cancel NAFTA if the renegotiations failed.  After his election, Trump made a number of changes that affect trade relations with other countries. The withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, the cessation of participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and the significant increase in tariffs with China were some of the measures he implemented and reaffirmed that he was serious in seeking changes to NAFTA.  Much of the debate about the virtues and mistakes of the USMCA is similar to the debate about all free trade agreements (SAAs), for example the nature of free trade agreements as public goods, potential violations of national sovereignty, and the role of commercial, labor, environmental, and consumer interests in shaping the language of trade agreements. The agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada («USMCA» in the United States, «CUSMA» in Canada and «T-MEC» in Mexico) entered into force on July 1, 2020. The trade agreement between the three countries replaces the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). For the first time, the agreement specifically addresses agricultural biotechnology to support twenty-first century innovation in agriculture. The text covers all biotechnologies, including new technologies such as gene editing, while the trans-Pacific partnership text covered only traditional rDNA technology. In particular, the United States, Mexico and Canada have agreed on provisions to improve information exchange and trade cooperation in the field of agricultural biotechnology. The Parties agreed to put in place important procedural safeguards for the recognition of new geographical indications, including strong standards of protection against the grant of geographical indications that would prevent producers in the United States from using common names, as well as a mechanism for consultation between the Parties on future geographical indications, in accordance with international agreements. The Trade Representative proposed the USMCA, citing new digital trade measures, stronger trade secret protections and adaptations to rules of origin for motor vehicles as some of the benefits of the trade deal.
 Fox News reported on December 9, 2019, that negotiators from the three countries reached an agreement on implementation, paving the way for a final agreement within 24 hours and ratification by all three sides before the end of the year. . . .