Ratifications are submitted to FAR 1.602-3 (Ratification of Unauthorized Commitment), which defines ratification as an act of approval of an unauthorized obligation by an official authorized to do so.  Illicit engagement means an agreement that is not binding solely because the government representative who did so was not authorized to conclude the agreement on behalf of the government. A ratifying official can only ratify if: (1) the government has received the goods or services; (2) The ratifying official is authorized to impose on the United States and had that power at the time of the unauthorized engagement; (3) Otherwise, the resulting contract would be appropriate, i.e. that there are adequate resources, that the treaty is not prohibited by law, that ratification is in accordance with agency procedures, etc.; 4. The contract agent found that the price paid was fair and reasonable and recommended payment, and counsel agreed.  Commercial software purchases are processed only briefly at DFARS 227.7202, which essentially means that the government obtains the rights acquired in the relevant software market, that the government obtains the minimum rights required for government purposes, and that the government cannot compel the commercial seller to relinquish its rights. The government cannot make a unilateral amendment that imposes the provision of rights to computer software; Mutual consent is required by law and DFARS rules for the acquisition of commercial software. The contractual clause that is normally provided for in a commercial software contract is the CLAUSE FAR 52.212-4, Commercial Items. This clause reflects the aforementioned intention that the government will have rights granted to the ordinary consumer in this particular market, which are in fact defined by a separate software license. Software licenses have routine rules that are illegal in government contracts. In particular, see FAR 12.304 for the provisions of Clause 52.212-4, which can be cut out and cannot be as good, as well as certain provisions that may never be included in a government contract, except in very special circumstances (. B, for example, compensation agreements, provisions that require the government to waive control of disputes (usually for infringement actions against the government/licensed). Check separately for clause 52.212-4 and the software license and determine if they have overlapping or contradicting provisions.